Thursday, June 16, 2011

Soybean ( Kedelai )

(Glycine max (Linn.) Merrill.) 
Glycine Soja, (Linn), Sieb. G. Soja, (Linn), Zucc. 

The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max)[1] is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse.[by whom?]

Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a primary, low-cost, source of protein for animal feeds and most prepackaged meals[citation needed]; soy vegetable oil is another product of processing the soybean crop. For example, soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP) are ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues.[2] Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land.[3]

Traditional nonfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, and from the latter tofu and tofu skin. Fermented foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto, and tempeh, among others. The oil is used in many industrial applications. The main producers of soy are the United States (35%), Brazil (27%), Argentina (19%), China (6%) and India (4%).[4] The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, alpha-Linolenic acid, and the isoflavones genistein and daidzein.

Soybean (Glycine max) has been cultivated since 1500 BC and was signed in Indonesia, especially Java, circa 1750. Soy is best planted in fields and rice paddies between the dry season and rainy season. Being the average rainfall per year suitable for soybeans is less than 200 mm with 3-6 months of dry season and rainy days ranging between 95-122 days a year. Soy has a small stature and high trunk can reach 75 cm. Leaves oval shape with both ends forming an acute angle and tiered three spreads (right - left - front) in a single strand that connects the tree branches.Fruiting soybean pods containing seeds. According to its kind there is soy, which is white and black. Both the outer skin of the fruit pod and the trunk has a coarse fur is brown. For soybean cultivation in Java is best to land at an altitude of less than 500 m above sea level. 

Local Name: 
Soybean (UK), Soybean (Indonesia), Kedhele (Madura); Soybean, Peanut Jepun, Nuts fur (Sunda), Lawui (Bima); Dele, Dangsul, Dekeman (Java), Fractured Menjong (Lampung); Beans Rimang (Minangkabau ), Kadale (Ujung Pandang); 

Together, oil and protein content account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash. Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ.
Most soy protein is a relatively heat-stable storage protein. This heat stability enables soy food products requiring high temperature cooking, such as tofu, soy milk and textured vegetable protein (soy flour) to be made.
The principal soluble carbohydrates of mature soybeans are the disaccharide sucrose (range 2.5–8.2%), the trisaccharide raffinose (0.1–1.0%) composed of one sucrose molecule connected to one molecule of galactose, and the tetrasaccharide stachyose (1.4 to 4.1%) composed of one sucrose connected to two molecules of galactose. While the oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose protect the viability of the soy bean seed from desiccation (see above section on physical characteristics) they are not digestible sugars and therefore contribute to flatulence and abdominal discomfort in humans and other monogastric animals; compare to the disaccharide trehalose. Undigested oligosaccharides are broken down in the intestine by native microbes producing gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane.
Since soluble soy carbohydrates are found in the whey and are broken down during fermentation, soy concentrate, soy protein isolates, tofu, soy sauce, and sprouted soy beans are without flatus activity. On the other hand, there may be some beneficial effects to ingesting oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose, namely, encouraging indigenous bifidobacteria in the colon against putrefactive bacteria.
The insoluble carbohydrates in soybeans consist of the complex polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The majority of soybean carbohydrates can be classed as belonging to dietary fiber.
Curable Disease: 
Diabetes mellitus, kidney pain, Rheumatic; 
1. Diabetes Mellitus 
    Ingredients: 1 handful of black soy beans 
    Method: boiled in 3 cups water to boil 
    1 cup water and filtered to be taken 
    How to use: drink one glass a day one and done 
    regularly every day. 

2. Kidney Pain 
    Ingredients: 3 tablespoons soy beans. 
    Method: boiled with 2-3 cups water to boil 
    1 cup, and then filtered to take water. 
    How to use: drunk on the morning after waking up 
    and is performed routinely every day. 

3. Rheumatic 
    Ingredients: 1 tablespoon black soy beans, 1 tablespoon peanut 
    green, and 2 tablespoons of peanut. 
    How to make: all the ingredients are fried without oil 
    (Sangan = Java), then crushed (ground) until smooth. 
    How to use: eat 2 times daily 1 teaspoonful, morning and 

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