Sambiloto (Bitter) (Andrographis paniculata Ness.)
Synonyms: = Andrographis paniculata, Ness. = Justicia stricta, Lamk. = J.paniculata, Burm. = J.latebrosa, Russ.
Description:I. Plant Description. Sambiloto grows wild in the open, like in the garden, the river bank, rather humid vacant land, or in the yard. Grows in lowland until height of 700 m above sea level. Annual herb, height 50-90 cm, stems with many branches quadrangular (kwadrangularis) with the enlarged nodes. Leaves single, short-stemmed, the location of face crossed, shape lanceolate, base tapered, pointed tip, flat edge, upper surface dark green, light green bottom, length 2-8 cm, width 1-3 cm. Rasemosa a branched inflorescence panicle shape, get out of. tip of the stem or axillary panicles. Lipped tubular flowers, small, purple-stained white color. Fruit oblong-shaped capsule, long about 1.5 cm, 0.5 cm wide, base and sharp edge, when it is ripe will split into 4 pieces lengthwise-Seeds flattened, small, light brown color.Propagation by seed or stem cuttings. II. Terms Grows a. Climate · Elevation: 1 m - 700 m above sea level · Annual rainfall: 2,000 mm - 3000 mm / years · Month wet (above 100 mm / month): 5 months - 7 months · Month dry (below 60 mm / month): 4 months - 7 months · air temperature: 250 C - 320 C ° Humidity:'m · Irradiation:'m b. Land · Texture: sandy · Drainage: good · ground water depth: 200 cm - 300 cm from ground · rooting depth: 25 cm above ground level · Acidity (pH): 5.5 to 6.5 · Fertility: medium - High 2. A. Planting Guidelines Processing Land · Make the planting hole measuring 25 cm x 25 cm x 25 cm b.Preparation of Seed · seeds planted in a plastic bag.c. Planting · Seedlings planted in the planting hole that has been provided with a spacing of 1.5 mx 1.5 m
Local Name:ki Oray, ki peurat, takilo (Sunda). lote, sadilata, sambilata,; takila (Java). pepaitan (Sumatra).; Chuan xin lian, yi xi praise, he lan lian (China), xuyen tam lien,; cong cong (Vietnam). kirata, mahatitka (India / Pakistan).; creat, green chiretta, halviva, kariyat (UK)
Composition:NATURE OF CHEMICAL AND pharmacological effect:: This herb is very bitter, cold, into the lung meridian, stomach, colon and small intestine.
CHEMICAL CONTENT: Leaves and branches contain laktone consisting of deoksiandrografolid, andrographolide (bitter substance), neoandrografolid, 14-deoxy-11-12-didehidroandrografolid, and homoandrografolid. There is also a flavonoid, alkane, ketone, aldehyde, minerals (potassium, calcium, sodium), grit acid, and resin. Flavotioid most isolated from the root, namely polimetoksiflavon, andrografin, pan.ikulin, mono-0-metilwithin, and apigenin-7, 4 - dimetileter. Active substance andrographolide proven efficacious as hepatoprotektbr (protect liver cells from toxic substances.) Farmakologis Securities and Results: 1. This herb is efficacious aurcus bacteriostatic in Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella dysenteriae, and Escherichia coli. 2. This herb is very effective for the treatment of infections. In vitro, the water boiled stimulate white blood cell phagocytosis. 3.Andrographolide reduce fever caused by a vaccine that causes heat in rabbits. 4. Andrographolide to terminate the pregnancy and the placenta inhibit the growth trofosit. 5. In terms of pharmacology, has bitter muskarinik effect on blood vessels, the effect on the heart iskeniik, the effect on cell respiration, the nature Kholeretik, antiinflammatory, and antibacterial. 6.Active components such as ncoandrografolid, andrographolide, deoksiandrografolid and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehidroandrografolid efficacious anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. 7. Provision of 40% decoction of leaves of bitter as much as 20 mg can lower blood glucose levels of white rats (W. Sugiyarto, Fak. Pharmacy Gadjah Mada University, 1978). 8. Sarnbiloto leaf infusion of 5%, 10% and 15%, it can lower the body temperature of guinea pigs made yarrg fever (Hasir, majoring in Pharmacy, Science Faculty of Hasanuddin University, 1988). 9.Infusion of bitter herbs has the power antifungal against Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans, and Epidermophyton floccosum (Jan Susilo *, Endang Hanani **, A. Soemiati ** ** and Lily Hamzah, Section of Parasitology and Department of FK UI * Pharmacy FMIPAUI **, News Perhipba No.Flll, Jan-March 1995). 10. Ethanol fraction bitter herb has the effect of antihistaminergik. Increased concentration will increase the resistance isolated guinea pig ileum contraction induced by histamine dihidroksiklorida (Yufri Aidi, NC Sugiarso, Andreanus, AA.S., Anna Setiadi Ranti, Department of Pharmacy and Science, ITB, Indonesia News Drug Plants vol. 3 No. 1, 1996 .)
Hepatitis, biliary tract infections, basiler dysentery,typhoid, diarrhea, influenza, inflammation of the tonsils(tonsillitis), lung abscess, malaria, lung inflammation(pneumonia), inflammation of the airways (bronchitis), acute kidney inflammation (pyelonephritis), inflammation middle ear (OMA); Appendicitis, toothache, fever, gonorrhea (gonorrhea); Diabetes(diabetes mellitus), pulmonary tuberculosis,skrofuloderma,; Whooping cough (pertussis),shortness of breath (asthma), leptospirosis, ; High blood pressure (hypertension), leprosy (morbusHansen = leprosy); mushroom poisoning, cassava,tempeh bongkrekic, seafood,; Cancer: trophoblasticdisease, pregnancy wine (hydatidiform mole),;malignant trophoblast (trophoblastic tumor), lung tumor.;
PART USED:Herba. Harvested when the plants begin flowering.After being washed, cut as necessary and then dried.
INDICATIONS:This bitter herb is efficacious to overcome:- Hepatitis, biliary tract infections,- Basiler dysentery, typhoid, diarrhea, influenza, inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis),
lung abscess, pneumonia (pneumonia), inflammation of the airways
(Bronchitis), acute kidney inflammation (acute pyelonephritis), inflammation of the ear
middle (OMA), appendicitis, toothache,- Fever, malaria,- Gonorrhea (gonorrhea),- Diabetes mellitus (DM),- Pulmonary tuberculosis, skrofuloderma, an rej cough (pertussis), shortness of breath (asthma),- High blood pressure (hypertension),- Leprosy (morbus Hansen = leprosy),- Leptospirosis,- Poisoned mushrooms, cassava, tempeh bongkrekic, seafood,- Cancer: trophoblastic diseases such as wine pregnancy (hydatidiform mole)
and malignant trophoblastic disease (trophoblastic tumor), and lung tumors.
HOW TO USE:Dried herbs as much as 10 - 20 g boiled or dried herbs finely ground into a
powder and brewed, drink or 3-4 times daily, 4-6 tablets. For cancer treatment, used intravenous fluids, injections or tablets. For external use, fresh herbs and then boiled the water used for washing or finely ground and affixed to a hospital, such as venomous snake bites, itching, or ulcers.
EXAMPLE OF USAGE:1. Typhoid
Sambiloto fresh leaves 10 - 15 pieces boiled with 2
water glass until remaining 1 glass. After chilling filtered, add
honey to taste and drink as well. Do it 3 times a day.
2. Basiler dysentery, diarrhea, inflammation of the airways, pneumonia
Dried herbs as much as 9-15 g boiled in 3 cups water to
the remaining 1 cup. After chilling filtered. Drink boiled water
2 times a day, each 1 / 2 cup.
Herbs fresh purslane (Portulaca oleracea) of 500 g evaporated
for 3-4 minutes, then crushed and pressed. Juice of the
collected added to the dry powder 10 g Sambiloto
while stirring. The mixture was then drunk, 3 times a day
each 1 / 3 part.
4. Influenza, headache, fever
Sambiloto dried powder 1 g brewed with a cup of water
heat. After a cold drink as well, Do it 3-4 times a day.
Sambiloto leaves 1 handful of fresh ground. Add
1 / 2 cup water, strain and drink as well. Fresh leaf
finely ground can also be used as a poultice body heat.
6. Pulmonary tuberculosis
Sambiloto dried leaves ground into powder. Add honey
taste, mix evenly and then created a pill with a diameter of 0.5
cm. These pills Ialu taken with boiled water. Day 2 - 3 times, each
drinks 15-30 pills.
7. Whooping cough (pertussis), high blood
Sambiloto fresh leaves as much as 5-7 pieces brewed with 1 / 2
cup hot water. Add honey to taste, stirring frequently.
After a cold drink at once. Do it 3 times a day.
8. Pneumonia, mouth ulcers, tonsillitis
Bitter herbs dry powder counted 3 - 4.5 g brewed with
hot water. Once cool add honey to taste and drink
Sambiloto fresh herbs as much as 9 g of washed and rinsed with water
mature. Materials are then chewed and swallowed its water.
10. Nasal mucus (rinorea), middle ear infection (OMA), toothache
Sambiloto fresh herbs as much as 9-15 g boiled in 3 cups water
until remaining 1 glass. After chilling filtered, then taken 2 times
a day @ 1 / 2 cup. For OMA, fresh herbs are washed and milled
smooth and extorted. The water used for ear drops.
Sambiloto fresh leaves as much as 1 / 2 phones are washed and boiled
with 3 clean water glass until remaining 2 1 / 4 cup.After cold
filtered, then taken after every meal, 3 times a day @ 3 / 4 cup.
A total of 3 stalks sambiloto